DigiNotar:: SSL man-in-the-middle (MITM) attack
Posted 30 August 2011 - 06:52 AM
Monday, August 29, 2011 8:59 PM
by Heather Adkins, Information Security Manager
"Today we received reports of attempted SSL man-in-the-middle (MITM) attacks against Google users, whereby someone tried to get between them and encrypted Google services. The people affected were primarily located in Iran. The attacker used a fraudulent SSL certificate issued by DigiNotar, a root certificate authority that should not issue certificates for Google (and has since revoked it).
Google Chrome users were protected from this attack because Chrome was able to detect the fraudulent certificate.
To further protect the safety and privacy of our users, we plan to disable the DigiNotar certificate authority in Chrome while investigations continue.
Mozilla also moved quickly to protect its users.
This means that Chrome and Firefox users will receive alerts if they try to visit websites that use DigiNotar certificates."
To help deter unwanted surveillance, we recommend that users, especially those in Iran, keep their web browsers and operating systems up to date and pay attention to web browser security warnings.
Google Online Security Blog
Posted 30 August 2011 - 06:54 AM
08.29.11 - 02:59pm - Mozilla Security Blog
Mozilla was informed today about the issuance of at least one fraudulent SSL certificate for public websites belonging to Google, Inc.
This is not a Firefox-specific issue, and the certificate has now been revoked by its issuer, DigiNotar. This should protect most users.
Because the extent of the mis-issuance is not clear, we are releasing new versions of Firefox for desktop (3.6.21, 6.0.1, 7, 8, and 9) and mobile (6.0.1, 7, 8, and 9), Thunderbird (3.1.13, and 6.0.1) and SeaMonkey (2.3.2) shortly that will revoke trust in the DigiNotar root and protect users from this attack. We encourage all users to keep their software up-to-date by regularly applying security updates. Users can also manually disable the DigiNotar root through the Firefox preferences.
Please read the Security Alert at Mozilla
Posted 30 August 2011 - 07:42 AM
Published: August 29, 2011 | Updated: August 29, 2011 to correct erroneous advisory number.
Microsoft is aware of at least one fraudulent digital certificate issued by DigiNotar, a certification authority present in the Trusted Root Certification Authorities Store, on all supported releases of Microsoft Windows. Although this is not a vulnerability in a Microsoft product, Microsoft is taking action to protect customers.
Microsoft has been able to confirm that one digital certificate affects all subdomains of google.com and may be used to spoof content, perform phishing attacks, or perform man-in-the-middle attacks against all Web browser users including users of Internet Explorer. Microsoft is continuing to investigate how many more certificates have been fraudulently issued. As a precautionary measure, Microsoft has removed the DigiNotar root certificate from the Microsoft Certificate Trust List.
All supported editions of Windows Vista, Windows 7, Windows Server 2008, and Windows Server 2008 R2 use the Microsoft Certificate Trust List to validate the trust of a certification authority. Users of these operating systems will be presented with an invalid certificate error when they browse to a Web site or try to install programs signed by the DigiNotar root certificate. In those cases users should follow the instructions in the message. Microsoft will release a future update to address this issue for all supported editions of Windows XP and Windows Server 2003.
Microsoft Security Advisory (2607712)
Posted 03 September 2011 - 05:17 AM
09.02.11 - 06:28pm
Earlier this week we revoked our trust in the DigiNotar certificate authority from all Mozilla software. This is not a temporary suspension, it is a complete removal from our trusted root program. Complete revocation of trust is a decision we treat with careful consideration, and employ as a last resort.
Three central issues informed our decision:
1) Failure to notify. DigiNotar detected and revoked some of the fraudulent certificates 6 weeks ago without notifying Mozilla. This is particularly troubling since some of the certificates were issued for our own addons.mozilla.org domain.
2) The scope of the breach remains unknown. While we were initially informed by Google that a fraudulent *.google.com certificate had been issued, DigiNotar eventually confirmed that more than 200 certificates had been issued against more than 20 different domains. We now know that the attackers also issued certificates from another of DigiNotar?s intermediate certificates without proper logging. It is therefore impossible for us to know how many fraudulent certificates exist, or which sites are targeted.
3) The attack is not theoretical. We have received multiple reports of these certificates being used in the wild.
Mozilla has a strong history of working with CAs to address shared technical challenges, as well as responding to and containing breaches when they do arise. In an incident earlier this year we worked with Comodo to block a set of mis-issued certificates that were detected, contained, and reported to us immediately. In DigiNotar?s case, by contrast, we have no confidence that the problem had been contained. Furthermore, their failure to notify leaves us deeply concerned about our ability to protect our users from future breaches.
Staat der Nederlanden Certificates
DigiNotar issues certificates as part of the Dutch government?s PKIoverheid (PKIgovernment) program. These certificates are issued from a different DigiNotar-controlled intermediate, and chain up to the Dutch government CA (Staat der Nederlanden). The Dutch government?s Computer Emergency Response Team (GovCERT) indicated that these certificates are issued independently of DigiNotar?s other processes and that, in their assessment, these had not been compromised. The Dutch government therefore requested that we exempt these certificates from the removal of trust, which we agreed to do in our initial security update early this week.
The Dutch government has since audited DigiNotar?s performance and rescinded this assessment. We are now removing the exemption for these certificates, meaning that all DigiNotar certificates will be untrusted by Mozilla products. We understand that other browser vendors are making similar changes. We?re also working with our Dutch localizers and the Bits of Freedom group in the Netherlands to contact individual site operators using affected certificates (based on the EFF?s SSL Observatory data).
The integrity of the SSL system cannot be maintained in secrecy. Incidents like this one demonstrate the need for active, immediate and comprehensive communication between CAs and software vendors to keep our collective users safe online.
Director of Firefox Engineering
Posted 05 September 2011 - 05:00 AM
Posted September 4th, 2011 by ioerror
About an hour ago I was contacted by the Dutch Government with more details about the DigiNotar Debacle. It seems that they're doing a great job keeping on top of things and doing the job that DigiNotar should've done in July. They sent a spreadsheet with a list of 531 entries on the currently known bad DigiNotar related certificates.
The list isn't pretty and I've decided that in the interest of defenders everywhere without special connections, I'm going to disclose it. The people that I have spoken with in the Dutch Government agree with this course of action.
This disclosure will absolutely not help any attacker as it does not contain the raw certificates; it is merely metadata about the certificates that were issued. It includes who we should not trust in the future going forward and it shows what is missing at the moment. This is an incomplete list because DigiNotar's audit trail is incomplete.
This is the list of CA roots that should probably never be trusted again:
DigiNotar Cyber CA
DigiNotar Extended Validation CA
DigiNotar Public CA 2025
DigiNotar Public CA - G2
Koninklijke Notariele Beroepsorganisatie CA
Stichting TTP Infos CA
further in the blog post
Of particular note is this certificate:
CN=*.RamzShekaneBozorg.com,SN=PK000229200006593,OU=Sare Toro Ham Mishkanam,L=Tehran,O=Hameye Ramzaro Mishkanam,C=IR
The text here appears to be be an entry like any other but it is infact a calling card from a Farsi speaker. RamzShekaneBozorg.com is not a valid domain as of this writing.
Thanks to an anonymous Farsi speaker, I now understand that the above certificate is actually a comment to anyone who bothers to read between the lines:
"RamzShekaneBozorg" is "great cracker"
"Hameyeh Ramzaro Mishkanam" translates to "I will crack all encryption"
"Sare Toro Ham Mishkanam" translates to "i hate/break your head"
Read the full blog post DigiNotar Damage Disclosure
New Tor Browser Bundles are available: New Tor Browser Bundles
Posted 06 September 2011 - 04:48 AM
This YouTube video, from the newly-released (PDF) Fox-IT report into the DigiNotar compromise, demonstrates the extent of the failure. Every red dot is an OCSP hit for the *.google.com certificate, indicating that someone in Iran was successfully MITMed, giving the attacker access to their private Google data. There were over 300,000 unique IPs over the course of a month (August 4th to 29th). See page 8 of the report.
Updated DigiNotar CN List
DigiNotar Compromise: PostScript
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